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Thomas Siefke, Lauryna Siaudinyté, Søren Alkærsig Jensen, Astrid Tranum Rømer, Poul-Erik Hansen
Fine details of structural deviations in reference samples for scatterometry

In order to fulfil Moore’s law, the dimensions of the key elements of integrated circuits have been reduced to single digit nanometers. Besides enormous challenges for the micro- and nano fabrication methods itself, metrology is required for quality control to provide sub-nanometer uncertainties. Within the two EU founded projects ATMOC and POLight this challenge is tackled. In real world samples, deviations from the ideal geometries are encountered due to the complexities of fabrication processes. Understanding of these processes guides the development of procedures and helps in the reconstruction of the geometry from various scatterometric measurements. Here, we are reporting on the fabrication of reference samples for the mentioned projects and discuss the technological origins for such deviations.

Poul-Erik Hansen, Lauryna Siaudinyté, Thomas Siefke
In situ calibration of numerical aperture in optical microscopes

One of the most important components in microscopy is the illumination and imaging numerical aperture (NA). Together with the wavelength it sets the final limits and capabilities of the microscopy system. In scatterometry and ptychography a precise knowledge of the NA is required for the reconstruction algorithm. Here the uncertainty of values supplied by the manufactures are often to large, impairing the measurement capability of the system. In this research we demonstrate a method to measure the numerical aperture with high precision and thereby improve optical microscopy measurements.

O. Henze, V. Soltwisch, A. Tiwari, I. A. Makhotkin, N. Hegemann, S. Heidenreich
Bayesian approach for determining the optical constants of layered systems using EUV reflectometry: The effect of different priors

For the development of novel technologies and high-precision manufacturing techniques in semiconductor and optics industries and in nanotechnologies, precise knowledge of the optical properties of these materials is vital, providing the foundation e.g. for novel nanoelectronic devices, high-quality sensors or effective photovoltaic elements.

M. Vila Forteza, Pascual D. Galar, U. Kumar, A. K. Verma
Work-in-progress: Reliability prediction of API centrifugal pumps using survival analysis

In the Oil & Gas Industry, large fleets of centrifugal pumps are used for different services working in diverse process conditions. More specifically in oil refineries, they have many characteristics in common since they are centrifugal machines that handle liquids using the same operating principle and because their design is highly standardized by API 610/ISO 13709 std for centrifugal pumps and API 682 std for sealing systems. As well, operating units and refining processes are well known and do not differ much regardless of where they are installed. Due to their criticality in the refining process, the reliability of these assets is of the utmost importance, being the MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) one of the most used KPI (Key Performance Indicator) for evaluating it. Considering the characteristics indicated above, the possibility of predicting the MTBF of centrifugal pumps based on historical failure data, design features and expected operating conditions with Cox Proportional Hazards Model (PHM) is suggested.

Tamás Gyulai, Péter Wolf, Ferenc Kása, Zsolt János Viharos
Learning Factories towards Industry 5.0: Evolutionary or Revolutionary?

Rather than representing a technological leap forward, Industry 5.0 actually nests the Industry 4.0 approach in a broader context, providing regenerative purpose and directionality to the technological transformation of industrial production for people-planet-prosperity [1]. Consequently, Industry 5.0 can be considered as the new engine of the economic and societal transition with a societal concept which can mean more distributed well-being with human-centric and sustainable, resilient industry. The advantage of the learning factory concept therefore lies in the combination of the realistic factory environment, processes and transparency of the structured activities which can provide testing of new features, modules, functionalities, tools, and technologies based on the existing Industry 4.0 framework. Especially, the concepts of implementing new business models with benchmarking emphasise the major difference in achievable results. Transition to a circular economy can only be achieved if up-skilling and re-skilling of workers can also be done which is the core function of the learning factory.

László Fükő, Ádám Szaller, Eduardo Colangelo, Gábor Nick, Botond Kádár
Flexible Manufacturing Concept at Bosch: A low-cost implementation of an Industry 4.0 concept

Nowadays production companies are in a difficult situation since batch sizes are decreasing, the number of product variants is growing, and the demand is difficult to forecast. New technologies enable to design more complex production systems capable of handling these challenges, but these “Industry 4.0 solutions” are often very expensive and hard to implement. In Bosch Power Tool Ltd. (Hungary), a flexible manufacturing concept was implemented, which enables to produce efficiently even with batch size one, requires much less space from the shop floor, prevents disruptions in production, and last but not least realized in from a relatively small budget. The concept introduced in this paper can be used as a best practice for manufacturing companies facing similar challenges.

Alexander Shestakov, Olga Ibryaeva, Victoria Eremeeva, Vladimir Sinitsin
The Detection of Rotor Bar Faults in Induction Motors Using the Recursive Matrix Pencil Method

Rotor cage induction motors are widely used in the industry and their unpredicted shutdown can be very costly. Therefore, for safety and economic considerations, there is a need for identifying incipient faults. Among the induction motors faults, the rotor bar faults are among the most common failures. These generate sideband frequency components around the frequency of the power supply. The amplitudes of these sideband frequencies increase with the progression of the bar fault. Here we propose that the Recursive Matrix Pencil Method is able to track the growth of the sideband frequency amplitude excited by a rotor bar fault and show the results of applying the technique to numerically simulated data. Signal preprocessing consists in filtering the supply frequency and bandpass filtering with a passband frequency range specified by one of the sideband frequencies. The paper uses the modelling of the induction motor current signal so that the gradual development of a rotor bar fault can be simulated. It is shown that the Recursive Matrix Pencil Method gives a time advantage over the Classical Matrix Pencil Method and the possibility of practical application.

Raissa Schiavoni, Antonio Masciullo, Andrea Cataldo
Skin monitoring and diagnostics: towards a wearable low-cost system

Wearable technology in healthcare refers to medical devices for real-time monitoring of a wide variety of biomedical parameters of the human body. The Health 4.0 scenario has led to the rapid development of these systems in all fields of medicine. However, a wearable non-invasive device for skin health monitoring for skin hydration control or cancer prevention is still an open challenge. In this regard, this paper addresses the design and the implementation of a low-cost portable system for skin diagnostics purposes which is based-on microwave reflectometry technique. For this purpose, a specific sensing element (SE), connected to a miniaturized vector network analyzer (m-VNA) has been designed and assessed for the optimal detection of the variation of the dielectric properties of the skin. The proposed system has been validated, first, through full wave simulations, then, directly on human skin, demonstrating a good potential for achieving a fully wearable system for skin monitoring and diagnostics.

Giulio D’Emilia, Luciano Chiominto, Antonella Gaspari, Emanuela Natale, Andrea Prato, Alessandro Schiavi
A contribution to trustworthiness of data from digital MEMS accelerometers for smart mobility

In this work the problem of traceability of sensors used for intelligent mobility is addressed, in particular with reference to MEMS digital accelerometers. This topic is of great importance from the point of view of data reliability, and has significant implications in the field of safety. For this purpose, a rotating calibration bench is used to reproduce the conditions of use in the field, and the results are compared with calibration data obtained on linear type benches.

Zsolt Tóth, Eszter Kocsis, Attila Lukács, István Szalai
No-clean flux residues detection with impedance measurements

The no-clean flux-residues pose a high reliability risk, thus controlled strictly in the modern electronics assembly industry. A series of customized Surface Insulation Resistance (SIR) Experiments and AC impedance analysis under various test patterns demonstrate the dramatic impact of the partial activation of the fluxes unevaporated solvents, and non-decomposed activators on the reliability of the final assembly. Although the mainstream no-clean pastes and liquid fluxes are qualified under all the standard SIR and electrochemical migration (ECM) reliability tests, the solder mask filled SIR patterns are more realistic and the tests results more accurate. The spaces are filled with solder mask thus the ionic migration analysis is more complex. From this perspective, we demonstrate a thorough examination of these more realistic structures with classic DC SIR method and AC impedance measurements. This study examined the impact of no-clean flux residues on capacitance and resistance in case of solder mask filled comb patterns.

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