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Giosue Caliano, Francesca Mariani, Alessandro Salvini
A portable and autonomous system for the diagnosis of the structural health of cultural heritage (PICUS)

An innovative system has been developed, named PICUS (the woodpecker in Latin), and inspired by the auscultation method carried out by the experts in the field of conservation of cultural heritage. This device gently knocking the surface, controlling, acquiring and measuring some relevant parameters. In a nutshell, it performs an analysis similar to that carried out by a professional who performs a routine examination on the detachments by hand. The experimental apparatus consists of a probe made of an electromechanical percussion element that gently taps the surface producing a sound, an accelerometer to measure the impact force, and a microphone, all connected with an Arduino-like low cost board, to record and elaborate the sounds and the force sensor signal. The probe XY position on the scene is recognized using a low-cost IR camera positioned in the probe and an IR light-emitting diode opportunely positioned outside.

Maria Alberghina, Michela Ricca, Silvestro Antonio Ruffolo, Mauro Francesco La Russa
Knowledge and decay assessment to manage a restoration plan and to define a valorisation program for a sustainable CH conservation: the experience of the ADELE-RS project

The Adele-RS Project, funded by the Erasmus+ Programme (measure VETKA2020), develops a homogeneous solution, called the Adele-RS System, which integrates the most advanced technologies for e-Learning with the most transversal ones aimed at e-Work. To this transversal objective, the Project adds a more specific goal that applies the Adele-RS System to the specialization of a particular and interesting target of users: the graduates in the Restoration, Conservation and Valorisation of Cultural Heritage in order to fill the gap in knowledge and sectoral skills when students leaving university in relation to the needs of the field, so as to consolidate their employability, also in the transnational and international dimension. Erasmus+ supports the priorities and activities set out in the European Education Area, the Digital Education Action Plan, and the Adele-RS Project is aimed to apply these objectives in Restoration Project Management and in Valorisation on Cultural Heritage field.

Natalia Rovella, Michela Ricca, David Berikashvili, Maria Pia Albanese, Mauro Francesco La Russa
Metallurgical technology of coins from Samshvilde fortress (South Georgia, Caucasus)

Samshvilde represents one of the most representative Georgian archaeological sites thanks to its complex history that began in the Neolithic times and ended in the 18th cent. The area has been always considered an important crossroads for its geographical position, and, for this, rich in different kinds of artefacts from pottery, obsidian objects, bronze coins to other furnishings. This variety testifies to the progress of the different civilizations over time in terms of culture, lifestyle, and technological skills. In the paper, two bronze coins were investigated to determine the main technological process used in the area during the Medieval Age and to increase the knowledge of metallurgical manufacture in the South Caucasus region that is still partly to be discovered.

Valeria Comite, Andrea Bergomi, Paola Fermo, Carlo Castellano, Mattia Borelli, Chiara Andrea Lombardi, Matteo Formenti, Cecilia Cavaterra, Cristina Della Pina
Study of the catalytic action of heavy metals to understand the phenomenon of sulphation and the formation of black crusts

The degradation of cultural assets exposed in out-of-door environments is a continuous and irreversible phenomenon that is largely accelerated by anthropogenic pollution. Various phenomena of degradation can develop on stone surfaces among which one of the most important is the formation of black crusts that are created in areas protected from runoff. The development of these degradation patinas is very complex and understanding their genesis could be fundamental in preventing the decay of monuments. This research shows the results of a second exposure campaign in accelerated ageing chambers in order to understand the role of catalysts that trigger the sulphation process and the formation of black crusts. This study was developed by analyzing samples of Carrara marble treated with metal cation solutions and PM 2.5 that were exposed for three weeks in corrosion and irradiation chambers.

Dario Giuffrida, Samuele Barone, Licia Cutroni, Giuseppe Cacciaguerra, Rosina Celeste Ponterio
Integrated approaches for architectural decay mapping: a case study of the historic Tuna Factory Florio on Favignana Island, Sicily, Italy (IDEHA Project)

This paper presents a multi-analytic study conducted as part of the IDHEA project at the former Tuna Factory Florio, an architectural complex situated on the captivating island of Favignana within the Egadi Islands, Trapani, Sicily, Italy. As a 19th-century industrial archaeology pole, this site stands as an intriguing nexus of architecture, museum exhibits, and cultural significance, rendering it an ideal experimental ground for pioneering methods and technologies aimed at preserving, managing, and enhancing cultural heritage. Given its coastal location, the structures are highly susceptible to marine, geomorphological, and environmental threats, intensifying material degradation risks. In this study, different approaches were adopted for the inspection, decay assessment and architectural survey of the building complex, including 3D architectural surveys via terrestrial laser scanning, drone-based RGB photogrammetry, multispectral data collection, and direct inspections. This integration yields comprehensive data and intricate 3D models, aiding in pinpointing specific vulnerabilities. The study culminates in the implementation of a GIS platform that harmonizes all data, serving as a pivotal resource for managing and preserving this historically significant site.

Antonio Donato, Alex De Salvo, Michal Novàk, Marie Novàkovà, Silvestro Antonio Ruffolo, Mauro La Russa, Andrea Macchia, Michela Ricca
Conservation of Underwater Cultural Heritage: preliminary coatings testing within the TECTONIC project

Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) encompasses all traces of human existence found beneath the water's surface, such as shipwrecks, submerged structures, and various archaeological sites. Preserving UCH presents numerous challenges due to the distinctive environmental conditions, difficulties associated with accessing and working in underwater environments, and the potential risks posed by natural forces and human activities. The TECTONIC project aims to foster collaboration between academic and non-academic professionals, facilitating the exchange of skills and expertise. The project's objective is to implement, enhance, and evaluate innovative materials, techniques, tools, and methodologies for the protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage. Within this context, the University of Calabria (Italy) and Synpo akciova spolecnost (Czech Republic) are collaborating on technology and scientific exchanges to develop an underwater coating with antifouling properties suitable for safeguarding underwater cultural heritage.

Immacolata Ditaranto, Fiorella De Luca, Pasquale Merola, Ilaria Miccoli, Giuseppe Scardozzi
Multitemporal aerial and satellite images for the study of the ancient city of Albania: remote sensing application at Apollonia and Phoenike

Thanks to the analysis of some recent satellite images, within a CNR-ISPC research project aimed at the realization of a Historical Aerotopographic Atlas of the ancient city of Albania, it is possible to present a preliminary study of two important ancient cities of Albania, Apollonia and Phoenike, aimed at enhancing some aspects of urban topography. In particular, historical space photos and recent satellite images were particularly useful for identifying traces likely to refer to buried buildings or parts of buildings, in sectors of archaeological areas where archaeological excavations have not yet been conducted.

Dora Francesca Barbolla, Veronica Ferrari, Ivan Ferrari, Francesco Giuri, Ilaria Miccoli, Giovanni Leucci, Giuseppe Scardozzi
Geophysical investigation at the St. Maria del Monacato di Villa Eucheria (Frosinone, Italy)

The monastery of St Maria di Palazzolo was built on the foundation slab of an imposing Roman villa dating back to the 2nd-1st century BC. In March 2023 a geophysical survey campaign was undertaken to identify the buried remains of the villa and direct the excavations.

Lara De Giorgi, Immacolata Ditaranto, Giovanni Leucci, Ilaria Miccoli, Giuseppe Scardozzi
Geophysical investigation at the Roman Amphitheatre (Lecce, Italy)

Lecce s historical character is expressed by its historical centre, rich in cultural and architectural marvels of the past. However, the symbol of Lecce s ancient origins is the Roman amphitheatre in St. Oronzo square, the core of the city. The amphitheatre was discovered during the construction of the building of the Bank of Italy by some workers in the early 900. In order to have pieces of information related to the structure of the amphitheatre, geophysical surveys were undertaken inside and outside it. In this paper, some of the interesting results obtained will be presented.

Francesco Giuri, Giorgia Di Fusco, Ivan Ferrari, Annalisa Malerba, Antonio Monte, Giovanni Quarta
From knowledge to conservation: the hypogeum trappeto of Melpignano (LE, Apulia, Italy)

The paper illustrates the first results of a study on an ancient production site of the industrial heritage of the Terra d'Otranto in South Italy: the trappeto of Melpignano in province of Lecce. It is an hypogeum oil mill for the production of oil for lighting. To understand the history of architectural transformations that involved the site over time a careful historical-archival research and a campaign of 3D architectural surveys using laser scanners and digital photogrammetry were carried out. Furthermore, a specific diagnostic survey, consisting in mapping of main alteration patterns, sampling and scientific analyses of materials and their alteration products was carried; all obtained data are useful for the following restoration and conservation project.

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